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20版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
洛阳桥
Luoyang Bridge

现存最早的跨海梁式石桥

The earliest existing sea-crossing beam stone bridge

世遗

风华

泉州洛阳桥是古代桥梁建筑的杰作,位于泉州市区东北部的洛阳江上,是连接泉州至省府乃至江西、浙江腹地的交通要道,它的建设开启了宋元泉州3个世纪的造桥运动,推动了国家口岸水陆转运系统的建立与完善。洛阳桥与安平桥、顺济桥等共同连通了便捷的沿海交通干线,在泉州水陆复合运输网络的发展中具有开拓性的里程碑意义。它是官方主导、全民合力建造大型交通设施的典范,体现了官方、僧侣等社会各界对商贸活动的推动和贡献。

洛阳桥于北宋皇祐五年(1053年)兴建,嘉祐四年(1059年)建成,前后历时七年,耗银一千四百万两。两次任泉州知府的蔡襄在修桥中贡献巨大,人们为缅怀他的功绩,自发捐献为其立祠。蔡襄祠目前是全国重点文物保护单位洛阳桥的附属文物。

在史料记载的洛阳桥建桥历史中,泉州人李宠甃沉石作桥,虽然没有成功,但开启了万安渡舍舟由陆、改渡为桥的历史,是洛阳江上尝试建桥的第一人。在李宠之后约10年,北宋皇祐五年(1053年)四月,王实首次在万安渡上砌石筑桥,可以说,王实才是兴造洛阳桥的第一人。之后蔡襄两度任职泉州知府,共计23个月,他亲自督导,攻克难关,造桥成功,其功勋不可磨灭,但与六年又八个月的造桥工程相比,蔡襄主持修造的时间仅四分之一强。因此,蔡襄在自撰的《万安渡石桥记》碑文中,并不自诩其功,而是大书主要参与者王实、义波等十五人,充分肯定了泉州普通百姓的力量和智慧。

现存古桥由花岗石砌筑,长约731米,宽4.5米,桥墩45座,两侧有500根栏杆石柱作为护栏,其中28根为狮身栏柱。所用石桥板最大的长11米,宽0.98米,厚0.80米,重约数吨至十多吨。

洛阳桥以造势宏大、技艺高超和独特的石构平梁、筏形基础的造桥技术被誉为“海内第一桥”“天下第一桥”,与卢沟桥、赵州桥、广济桥并称为“中国四大古桥”。作为中国历史上第一座跨江接海的重要桥梁,洛阳桥与刺桐城的兴起息息相关,与宋元时期泉州的繁荣相互呼应。洛阳桥的建造,实现了泉州港海上贸易品的陆海联运,反映了古泉州(刺桐)繁荣兴盛的海洋贸易活动和发达的交通建筑技术。

Located across the Luoyang River in the northeast of downtown Quanzhou, Luoyang Bridge is an outstanding work of ancient bridge construction, which was a vital communication line connecting Quanzhou and the backlands of Jiangxi and Zhejiang Provinces. Its construction started off the bridge-building movement that lasted for three centuries in the Song and Yuan Dynasties, promoting the establishment and improvement of national land-and-water coordinated transport system. Luoyang Bridge, Anping Bridge and Shunji Bridge etc, jointly connect the coastal arterials, which is a milestone of the development of Quanzhou’s land-and-water coordinated transport system. It is an example of the grand transportation construction with the authority’s leading and masses’ participation, showing the contribution and promotion for commercial activities from all walks of life including the authority and the monks.

Luoyang bridge was built between 1053 (the 5th year of the Huangyou reign of the Northern Song Dynasty) and 1059 (the 4th year of the Jiayou reign of the Northern Song Dynasty), costing 14 million liang (equals to 70 thousand kilograms of silver). Cai Xiang, who had been the magistrate of Quanzhou twice, contributed a lot to the bridge building. To commemorate his contributions, people donated and built a memorial temple. Now Cai Xiang Temple is an attached cultural relic of Luoyang Bridge, one of the Major Historical and Cultural Site Protected at the National Level.

According to Luoyang Bridge’s construction history records, Li Chongzhou once sank stones to build bridge. Though he failed, he was the first to attempt to build a bridge across the Luoyang River, who started the era of turning a ferry terminal into a bridge and going by land instead of waterway. About ten years after Li’s attempt, in the April of the 5th year of Huangyou reign in the Northern Song Dynasty (the year 1053), Wang Shi built a bridge by laying stones on the Wan’an Dock for the first time; so Wang was considered the first person who constructed the present Luoyang Bridge initially. Later, Cai Xiang, who had been the magistrate of Quanzhou twice, resolved difficulties and supervised the project in person. His contribution to the successful construction cannot go unnoticed. But compared with the total duration of the project, which was six years and eight months, his 23-month-supervision took up only one-fourth. Therefore, in the “Notes on Wan’an Bridge” written by Cai, he didn’t boast his contribution; instead, he recorded another 15 officials in charge, and highly affirmed the power and wisdom of local people.

Built with granite, the bridge is about 731 meters long, 4.5 meters wide with 45 piers and 500 stone rails, among which there are 28 rails carved into a lion body shape. The largest stone slabs used to pave the bridge road are 11 meters long, 0.98 meters wide and 0.8 meters thick. The average weight of the slabs is over 10 tons.

Due to the magnificent, skillful and unique construction of the flat-beam stone bridge, as well as the “raft-shaped foundation” building technique, Luoyang Bridge enjoys the reputation as the “No.1 bridge in the world”. And together with Lugou Bridge, Zhaozhou Bridge and Guangji Bridge, Luoyang Bridge is renowned as one of the four famous ancient Chinese bridges. As China’s first important cross-channel stone bridge, it can be traced to the same origin as the prosperity of Zayton City and has a significant impact on Quanzhou’s flourishing in the Song and Yuan Dynasties. The construction of Luoyang Bridge makes the joint rail and water transportation that benefits the marine trade come true. Meanwhile, it reflects ancient Quanzhou’s prosperous maritime commerce and advanced transportation building technology.

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