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22版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
顺济桥遗址
Site of Shunji Bridge

出入古城商业区的主要通道,是泉州古城与晋江南岸的陆运节点

As the primary access to the ancient business district, the site of Shunji Bridge was the land transportation node between the ancient city of Quanzhou and the South Bank of Jinjiang River.

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顺济桥遗址位于泉州古城南门德济门外,横跨晋江两岸,它是泉州古城区较大的宋代城市建设文物遗址,是泉州城市建设史中的缩影,也是体现世界海洋贸易中心运输网络的代表性遗产要素。

据《晋江县志》记载,1196年,顺济宫(天后宫)建于泉州城市南部,宫外的滨江地带是宋代重要近城港口南关港所在。

南宋嘉定四年(1211年),由泉州郡守邹应龙主持建造跨江石桥,因桥东北端靠近南门顺济宫,故称“顺济桥”。又因迟于笋江河段上游的石笋桥建成,俗称“新桥”。顺济桥的建设正是城市南部商人聚居、商业发展、交通需求旺盛的体现。1230年泉州的翼城建成,由顺济桥经翼城南门(德济门)可直达城内的天后宫,顺济桥成为连通古城商业区的主要通道。顺济桥与德济门、天后宫共同成为古城南端的重要地标。

顺济桥为梁式石桥,其建造吸取了洛阳桥“筏形基础”的方法,在河床抛填石块形成结构基础,其上干砌条石形成桥墩,桥墩之上板架设长条石板,形成桥面,并在两侧筑有扶栏。顺济桥的宋代桥墩,经历代修缮,仍保存着船形石墩,与天后宫、德济门遗址景观浑然一体,见证了泉州以商贸著称的城南地区的繁荣与扩张,见证了泉州成为宋元世界的海洋贸易中心的辉煌过程。

作为城市商业性城区对外衔接的交通枢纽,顺济桥遗址见证了泉州城市在海洋贸易推动下的发展,也体现出商业拓展对交通系统的促进。

顺济桥,把晋江南岸的广大地区与泉州城的陆路交通紧密联系在一起。由南部往来泉州不必再绕行至晋江上游的石笋桥,使泉州与安海、同安、漳州等地的陆路交通更为便捷。同时,顺济桥的建成也方便了晋江南岸各港口与泉州城之间的交通。由石湖港至古城可沿12世纪建成的海岸长桥,经顺济桥至泉州南门。位于深沪湾、围头湾的其他港口也可由陆路经顺济桥到达古城。顺济桥的建设体现了海洋贸易推动下国家口岸水陆转运系统的逐步完善。

Located outside the Deji Gate, the southern gate of ancient Quanzhou, the Site of Shunji Bridge, which crosses Jinjiang River, is a relatively large-scale cultural relic of the city construction in Song Dynasty; it is the epitome of Quanzhou’s history of city construction, and the representative relic showing the transport network of the global marine trade center.

According to the Annals of Jinjiang County, in 1196, Shunji Temple (the present Tianhou Temple) was built in the south of Quanzhou city, with Nanguan Port located by the riverside, a key near-town port in Song Dynasty.

In the 4th year of Jiading Reign in Southern Song Dynasty (1211), Zou Yinglong, the magistrate of the prefecture, took charge of building the stone bridge across the river. The northeastern end of the bridge is close to the Shunji Temple, so it is called Shunji Bridge, or New Bridge because Shisun Bridge at the upper reaches of Sunjiang River was built earlier. The construction of Shunji Bridge reflected the increasing demand for transportation brought by merchants populating the southern part of the city and the business there flourishing. In 1230, Yicheng, the district where the foreign merchants stayed and lived, was included in the original city. People could reach Tianhou Temple by way of Shunji Bridge and Deji Gate, and Shunji Bridge became the main route connecting different areas of the ancient business district. Shunji Bridge, together with Deji Gate and Tianhou Temple, became the landmarks in the south of the city.

Shunji Bridge is a beam bridge, which adopted the “raft-shaped foundation” building technique of Luoyang Bridge. Stones were dumped onto the riverbed, serving as the structural basis. On this basis, stone blocks piled up to make up the piers. And right over the piers were stone slabs to form the bridge floor, with guardrails on each side.After the repairs in different dynasties, the piers built in Song Dynasty still keep the raft-shaped foundation, merging into an integral wholetogether with Tianhou Temple and Deji Gate, Shunji Bridge has witnessed the prosperity and expansion of the southern business district of the city, and the entire process of how Quanzhou became the world’s maritime trade center in Song and Yuan Dynasties.

As the transportation hub connecting the city’s business quarter to the outside, Shunji Bridge has witnessed Quanzhou’s development under the influence of maritime trade and the promotion to transportation system resulting from the development of business.

Shunji Bridge connected the vast area of the southern bank of Jinjiang River and the land transportation of Quanzhou together. People from the south no longer needed to detach Shisun Bridge at the upper reaches, and the land transportation connecting Quanzhou and Anhai, Tongan, Zhangzhou,etc.,became more convenient. Meanwhile, it also facilitated the transportation between Quanzhou and the ports of the southern bank of Jinjiang River. People could start off from Shihu Port, travel along Haian Bridge built in the 12th century, cross Shunji Bridge and finally reach the South Gate of the city. It was also convenient to travel by land from the ports located in Shenhu Bay, Weitou Bay, etc. to the city using Shunji Bridge. The construction of Shunji Bridge shows that the maritime trade can improve and perfect the water-land coordinated transportation of the nation’s ports.

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