2021年12月31日 星期
返回泉州网
数字报首页
26版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
万寿塔
Wanshou Pagoda

泉州湾外海航标,船舶抵达泉州港的重要地标

Wanshou Pagoda is the navigation marker at Quanzhou Bay for the arriving vessels.

世遗

风华

万寿塔(又称姑嫂塔)建于南宋绍兴年间(1131—1162年),已有八百多年的历史。它背靠泉州湾,面临台湾海峡,占地325平方米,高21.65米,八角形,五层,为仿楼阁式花岗石空心石塔。塔的二层门额上刻“万寿宝塔”四字,顶层内壁建有方形石龛,供有两尊石像,据说石像是女性形象,是传说中的一姑一嫂。

姑嫂塔名字的由来主要有两种不同版本。

民间流传最广泛的是来自一个凄凉的故事:传说很久以前,泉州大旱,庄稼颗粒无收,一位名叫海生的穷人被迫离别新婚妻子和心爱的妹妹,远走南洋,约定三年后回来相会。哥哥往南洋后,姑嫂俩天天爬上宝盖山,垒石登高,远眺大海归舟,盼望亲人回家团聚。转眼三年期到,哥哥乘船回来,姑嫂俩在山上看到哥哥的船已近海岸,谁知忽然刮起狂风、下起暴雨,一阵惊涛骇浪把穷哥哥乘坐的大帆船打翻了。哥哥葬身大海,姑嫂俩喜尽悲来,纵身跳入山崖。人们为了纪念她们,就在姑嫂二人垒石登高的地方建起这座“姑嫂塔”。

另一种说法是据史册记载,主持建塔的是一位法号“介殊”的僧人。介殊观察到宝盖山位于晋江东南滨海风口、水口交接处,自古以来,传统的观念均认为“风水”关乎一方灵气,决定人文兴衰。所以,介殊不辞劳苦,募缘兴建了这座石塔,作为“关锁风口水口”的镇塔之用,所以命名为“关锁塔”,又正名为“万寿宝塔”,并铭刻在二楼塔门。在闽南话中,关锁和姑嫂谐音,以讹传讹,最后演变为姑嫂塔,并最终成为流传人口、约定俗成的塔名。

一般说来,建塔必建寺,建寺多建塔,但此塔孤立于山巅,旁边并无寺庙。环顾塔身外壁,没有传统的精美佛教雕塑,也没有繁杂的纹饰,说明该塔的用途是比较单纯的航标,它是专业的航标。明代编修的《八闽通志》直截了当地记载:“(关锁塔)甚壮丽,商舶自海返者,指为抵岸之期。”

万寿塔作为海路上的重要视觉标志,在明清的历史文献和航海资料中多次出现,其形象也见于古代的沿海地图航海图中。万寿塔及所在山体的整体景观成为从事海洋贸易的商舶抵达泉州港的第一印象,见塔即见泉州。因此,万寿塔是商舶抵达泉州港的地标,也是宋元国家口岸的关键景观要素。

万寿塔(姑嫂塔)守护的“孤帆远影”“天际归帆”,是泉州海洋贸易独特的精神象征。宋元海洋贸易使大量海商远赴重洋,也将众多海商家庭思念远航亲人、企盼商旅平安的情感铸成了对海洋贸易的历史记忆,这一记忆反映出泉州社会对海洋贸易的广泛参与。

Built between 1131 and 1162 (during the Shaoxing reign of the Southern Song Dynasty),Wanshou Pagoda(Sisters-in-Law Pagoda) has a history of more than 800 years. It stands between the Quanzhou Bay and Taiwan Straits, covering an area of 325 square meters, with a height of 21.65 meters. The five-story octagonal structure is a pavilion-like hollow pagoda made of granite. The horizontal tablet above the door on the second floor carries the words “Longevity Pagoda”. There are two square niches built on the top layer enshrining two stone statues. It is said that the figures are female and are sisters-in-law.

How did the pagoda get its name? There are two different versions.

Many people believe it comes from a sorrowful story. A legend has it that in the Song Dynasty, there was a significant drought in Quanzhou. Crops died before harvest. A young man named Haisheng had to sail to Southeast Asia to seek his fortune and promised to return in 3 years. His wife and younger sister missed him so severely that they piled up stones on the Baogai Hill and waited for him. Three years later, the young man returned. But when he was about to get on the shore, all of a sudden, his ship was hit by a terrible storm and sunk. His wife and younger sister were so grief that they jumped off the hill and died. People then built the “Sisters-in-Law Tower” on the rock pile site in memory of them.

However, others think the second explanation is more convincing. According to the historical records, a monk named Jieshu directed the building of the pagoda. After conducting some surveys, Monk Jieshu found out that Baogai hill was located in the southeast of Jinjiang River,where the wind meets water. In Chinese Fengshui (Fengshui is the ancient Chinese study of the energy of a place, and the art of creating harmony and balance in both living and working environment), wind and water are associated with good health and fortune, thus it is an ideal geographical location. In Quanzhou dialect, “Lock up” and “Sisters-in-Law” are homonyms, so actually “Sisters-in-Law Pagoda” is a mispronunciation.

Generally speaking, where there is a pagoda, there is a temple. However, this pagoda is the only architecture on the hill with no temple nearby. Besides, there are neither exquisite statues nor vivid relief sculptures on the pagoda. As recorded in a local ancient document, the sailors knew they were approaching Quanzhou Bay when they saw the pagoda.

That Wanshou Pagoda acted as a visual landmark on the sea has been repeatedly recorded in historical documents and some navigational articles. Its image was also drawn in the ancient navigational maps. Wanshou Pagoda and the mountain where it is located are the view that the merchants will see the minute they arrive in Quanzhou Port. As a result, Wanshou Pagoda became the landmark for the merchant ships heading for Quanzhou Port.It was also an important sightseeing spot along with the national port during the Song and Yuan Dynasties.

Wanshou Pagoda (Sisters-in-Law Pagoda) which protects the ships coming and passing the Quanzhou Port is the unique spiritual symbol of Quanzhou marine trade. The marine trade during the Song and Yuan dynasties is a history of quantities of merchants who sailed overseas to conduct business as well as a history of the family members of those merchants missing them and praying for their safe return. This history,in turn,reflects that to some extent, citizens in Quanzhou all take part in the marine trade.

   01版:封面
   02版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   03版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   04版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   05版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   06版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   07版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   08版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   09版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   10版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   11版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   12版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   13版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   14版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   15版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   16版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   17版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   18版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   19版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   20版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   21版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   22版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   23版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   24版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   25版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   26版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   27版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
   28版:宋元中国 海丝泉州
万寿塔
世遗 导览
世遗 品读